往土地重分配邁進 南非打算徵收白人土地給黑人

by:泥仔
4377

在南非,大部分的土地仍然掌控在白人或傳統部落領袖的手上,這也讓南非計畫朝土地重分配邁進。

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在南非前曼德拉總統(Nelson Mandela)的舊住處,幾隻站在窗口上的雞被攝影師捕捉下來。

路透社/達志影像

成立委員會  打算修憲

本周二(4),南非議會通過成立特別委員會,該委員會將提出憲法第 25條修正草案。一旦修憲成功,政府在未來就可以不用支付補償金直接徵用人民土地。

20年來  沒有解決的問題

對南非政府來說,土地分配一直是個難解的問題。在當年的種族隔離政策下,有數百萬南非黑人的土地被佔少數的白人族群奪走,就算種族隔離政策已經終結超過 20年,現在還是有超過 70%的土地都在白人手上,相較之下,黑人農民所擁有的土地僅有 4%。

是解決過去  也是解決現在的問題

研究機構海倫蘇茲曼基金會(Helen Suzman Foundation)的研究人員達爾森(Anton van Dalsen)相信,土地分配不均是造成大城市近郊貧民窟蔓延的問題之一,他解釋道:「很多人會到城市找工作,但是他們卻沒辦法負擔住房問題,最後就會去住貧民窟了。」

因此達爾森相信,土地改革不僅是要修正過去徵用南非黑人土地這種歷史上的不公義,也是為了降低當今社會的不平等。

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今年 6月在南非某座農場工廠裡,工人們正忙著篩選酪梨。

路透社/達志影像

意識到問題  要改難

達爾森指出,雖然政府也有意識到這樣的狀況,但實際上在這 20年來,南非卻遲遲沒辦法推動土地改革議題。對此,達爾森認為除了當局推動改革意願不高以外,最主要的問題還是在執行上的明確性,像是政府得決定要針對哪些土地來改革、誰能受益、在重新安置後需要提供哪些幫助、那些本來就住在那裡的人又擁有什麼法律權益等等。

最終目的:土地重分配

因此議會現在成立的委員會可說是南非當局針對土地改革的第一步,該委員會由 25個成員組成,並將在 2019年3月公布他們的初步調查報告與建議。南非總統拉瑪佛沙(Cyril Ramaphosa)也希望他們最終可以達成無償徵收白人農民土地、再分配給數百萬名黑人農夫的目的。

反對聲音  擔心會有反效果

不過這樣的政策仍然招來不少反對聲音,批評者擔心,這種作法是對財產權的破壞,也會讓投資者有所顧忌,反對黨民主聯盟(Democratic Alliance, DA)便表示,如果委員會屆時提出的報告涉及修正土地徵用法的話,他們一定會「毫不猶豫地採取法律途徑」。

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在一座位於約翰尼斯堡(Johannesburg)南部的農場,工人們正在採收甘藍菜。

路透社/達志影像

前車之鑒  辛巴威

然而,《德國之聲》記者馬斯凡赫理(Privilege Musvanhiri)則擔心,南非現在準備推出的政策很有可能重蹈辛巴威的覆轍。

全部收走、再分配

其實在非洲地區,南非並不是唯一因為過去政策導致現在土地分配不均的國家。馬斯凡赫理指出,當辛巴威在 20多年前進行土地改革時,便直接把所有的商業農地收歸國有,而且在接下來幾年,所有被分配到土地的農夫也不能聲稱那塊土地是他們的。

不是我的  不敢用也不能用

這樣的作法導致許多農夫擔心手上這塊地隨時又會被政府收走,所以不願花心力在土地建設上;此外,土地所有權也導致擔保上的問題,就算有農夫想要經營手上的土地,他們也沒辦法透過抵押土地的方式來借貸。

整個情況讓以農業為經濟支柱的辛巴威逐漸面臨發展困境,成為辛巴威經濟崩盤的原因之一。

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雖然一切都在推動中,但南非總統拉瑪佛沙相信這項政策

路透社/達志影像

總統強調會注意

對此,南非總統拉瑪佛沙再三強調他們不會讓南非成為下一個辛巴威,也說如果該法案最終通過了,他們也會先從沒人使用的空地開始徵收起。

目前都是未知數

不論如何,雖然南非政府已經確定要設置特別委員會,不過在總統拉瑪佛沙實際簽訂這份法案前,整個法規還必須經過公聽會辯論、議會表決,所以實際上所謂土地重分配的政策要擬定並推出,也仍有很長一段路得走。

延伸閱讀

  1. 南非農地爭奪戰 白人農夫向前以色列特種部隊學防身
  2. 力求擊垮對手的大富翁 本來是要強調資本主義的「邪惡」

參考資料

  1. Opinion: South Africa's land expropriation plans could wreck regional economy
  2. The National Assembly debated the land issue for the second time this week, following its adoption of the constitutional review committee’s report. FILE: African National Congress (ANC) chief whip Jackson Mthembu. Picture: Bertram Malgas/EWN. FILE: African National Congress (ANC) chief whip Jackson Mthembu. Picture: Bertram Malgas/EWN. Land expropriation without compensation National Assembly Email Print Babalo Ndenze | about 16 hours ago CAPE TOWN - The National Assembly has on Thursday passed a motion to establish an ad hoc committee to draft the amendment to Section 25 of the Constitution to make land expropriation without compensation more explicit. The National Assembly debated the land issue for the second time this week, following its adoption of the constitutional review committee’s report which recommends that the Constitution should be amended. Tabling the motion, African National Congress (ANC) chief whip Jackson Mthembu called on the National Assembly to urgently establish a mechanism to effect the necessary amendment to the relevant part of the Constitution. “The only intention of this draft resolution is the initiation of a mechanism to take forward the decision of this House... nothing else. Unless the colleagues have forgotten their decision made a few days ago.” He says the ad hoc committee would comprise of 11 voting members of the National Assembly and 14 non-voting members. The ad hoc committee must report to the National Assembly by 31 March 2019 on its work of initiating and introducing the necessary amendment to Section 25 of the Constitution. (Edited by Zamangwane Shange) TIMELINE FILE: African National Congress (ANC) Chief Whip Jackson Mthembu. Picture: AFP ANC welcomes establishment of Parly committee to amend Constitution on land about 3 hours ago Picture: Facebook. AgriSA ‘concerned’ by Parliament adopting land report 2 days ago A screengrab the NCOP debating the land expropriation report on 5 December 2018. NCOP adopts land expropriation report 2 days ago A screengrab the NCOP debating the land expropriation report on 5 December 2018. [WATCH LIVE] NCOP debates land expropriation report 2 days ago RECOMMENDED by NEWSROOM AI POPULAR IN LOCAL Former SABC COO Hlaudi Motsoeneng at the Johannesburg High Court on 6 December 2018 to oppose SABC's decision to withhold his pension fund. Picture: Abigail Javier/EWN Hlaudi Motsoeneng: 'I am going to run and lead SA as president' about 4 hours ago Picture: Winnie Theletsane/EWN Flood warning issued for Gauteng as heavy rain forecast for most of SA about 2 hours ago FILE: Public Enterprises Minister Pravin Gordhan briefs the media on 23 July 2018. Picture: Kayleen Morgan/EWN Load shedding must not affect SA's economic growth - Gordhan about 4 hours ago FILE: The Medupi power station in Limpopo. Picture: EWN As load shedding bites, Eskom probes bloated Medupi Power Station contracts about 3 hours ago Picture: Nita/Pexels.com Load shedding continues Friday with Eskom to implement stage 1 power cuts about 2 hours ago Former SABC COO Hlaudi Motsoeneng at Johannesburg High Court to oppose SABC's decision to withhold his pension fund. Picture: Abigail Javier/EWN. ANC should’ve done more to protect me - Motsoeneng about 15 hours ago COMMENTS EWN welcomes all comments that are constructive, contribute to discussions in a meaningful manner and take stories forward. However, we will NOT condone the following: - Racism (including offensive comments based on ethnicity and nationality) - Sexism - Homophobia - Religious intolerance - Cyber bullying - Hate speech - Derogatory language - Comments inciting violence. We ask that your comments remain relevant to the articles they appear on and do not include general banter or conversation as this dilutes the effectiveness of the comments section. We strive to make the EWN community a safe and welcoming space for all. EWN reserves the right to: 1) remove any comments that do not follow the above guidelines; and, 2) ban users who repeatedly infringe the rules. Should you find any comments upsetting or offensive you can also flag them and we will assess it against our guidelines. EWN is constantly reviewing its comments policy in order to create an environment conducive to constructive conversations.
  3. South Africa withdraws land expropriation bill passed in 2016
  4. South Africa: Lawmakers open way for land reform
  5. South African parliament backs land reform report